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Common Name: Russian knapweed

Scientific Name: Centaurea repens, Acroptilon repens

Common Family Name: Sunflower family

Scientific Family Name:Asteraceae

Main toxic Principle:   Toxins may be sesquiterpene lactones, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, toxins interact with dopamine transporter resulting in death of dopaminergic neurons in the brain especially sbstancia nigra and

Clinical Signs:   The disease in horses is called equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (ENE) or chewing disease, clinical signs include sudden onset of inability to eat or drink, drowsiness interrupted by excitation, head down, dehydration